REPORT ON TOWNSHIP 51, RANGE 9, WEST OF THE FOURTH MERIDIAN
ACCESSIBILITY AND ROADS
The railway shipping Point and business centre to serve this township is Mannville, situated on the Canadian National railways line connecting Edmonton, North Battleford, Saskatoon and Winnipeg. From Mannville two main market roads run northerly through the township. Within the township and along its boundaries there are in all about 30 miles of well-travelled roads and about 25 miles of slightly-travelleds roads,
The population of Mannville is about 400. All lines of business essential to serve the requirements of a farming, community are fairly well represented there. In particular the village can boast of a weekly newspaper, two banks, five elevators, one flour mill and a creamery. The Mannville municipal hospital, supported by the village and three adjacent municipalities is located at this point. There is a good mail and train service with a daily through passenger train both ways, and a one way local freight and passenger train.
SURFACE AND SURFACE COVERING
Vermilion river flows southeasterly through this township. The bed of the river is from 40 to 50 feet wide and about 6 feet deep. At the time of survey the water was low and the volume of flow was very small. The river occupies a valley 100 to 200 feet in depth, with varying widths from 2 to 3 miles. The bottom of the valley is quite wide in places, while at other points it is narrow with long gentle slopes or low bench plateaus. The land north and east of the river is more broken, and rises to a greater height than that to the south and west. It is either rolling or hilly except for a few quarter-sections which are gently rolling. The surface of the township is largely prairie although in places there is a considerable growth of young poplar to, 4 inches in diameter, and poplar and willow from 6 to 12 feet in height. The surface covering is approximately as follows: 21 percent, now being cultivated; 6 per cent covered with poplar and willow bush from 6 to 12 feet in height; 5 per cent with poplar to 4 inches in diameter, while the remainder is open prairie land.
Throughout the township generally the soil is a loose black fine sandy loam. On the northeasterly half of the township the depth of this soil is 6 itches to 8 inches with a clay or clay loam subsoil while on the southwesterly half of the township the depth of top soil is 6 inches to 12 inches with generally a clay loam subsoil. Over the whole of the township there are scattered areas of stony land.
HAY AND WINTER FEED
The chief source of winter feed for stock is from oat and rye hay which is cut green, and from straw. A considerable amount of wild hay is obtained from the river flats, where there are some good, natural hay lands. A limited amount is also obtained from the low slough lands that occasionally dry up.
Most of the farmers use lignite coal which is shipped in from Edmonton and costs from $6 to $8 per ton at Mannville. A limited amount of wood is also obtained when land is being cleared. Poplar wood when properly dried burns well and is considered a satisfactory fuel.
CROPS AND STOCK
The chief grain crop of this district is wheat with lesser crops of oats and rye with a limited, amount of barley. The fodder crop is oat and rye hay. All of the vegetables commonly grown in western Canada are grown here. As a rule only enough, vegetables are produced for local use. Generally crops are successfully grown and harvested, al- though a few partial failures are reported which-have been due to drought or frost, Mixed farming is carried on by nearly all of the settlers. There is an abundance of horses to meet all the. requirements of the people and the average number of cattle owned by each farmer is between 30 and 40 head, together with a few hogs averaging about 10. Because of the good marketing facilities and large amount of open range, dairying is carried on and cream is taken to the Mannville creamery. The average number of cows milked by each farmer is from 6 to 8.
Vermilion river flows continuously throughout the summer season, providing a ready supply of water for all stock within reach of the stream. An abundance of good water is obtained from wells from 9-0 to 70 feet in depth. The drainage of the land is generally good.
POST OFFICE AND SCHOOL
Most of the farmers get their mail from Mannville although a few get their mail from Wealthy post office situated in the southwest quarter of section 10-52-9. The schools to meet the educational. needs of the children are in the southeast quarter of section 13, the northeast quarter of section 17 and the northeast quarter-section 34. These are one-room schools, and all have a fairly large attendance.
(Sgd.) R. H. KNIGHT,
August, 1923. Dominion Land Surveyor