REPORT ON TOWNSHIP 54, RANGE 1, WEST OF THE FOURTH MERIDIAN
ACCESSIBILITY AND ROADS
This township is more readily accessible from Lloydminster than from any other railway point. A main road from that town runs northerly through the easterly part of this township to Onion Lake post office near the northeast corner of section 36. From Onion Lake a main road runs westerly along the north boundary of the township. From these main roads local roads branching off make all parts of the township accessible.
TOWN AND VILLAGE
Lloydminster, twenty-four miles from this township on the line of the Canadian National Railways between Winnipeg and Edmonton via Saskatoon and North Battleford, has a population of about 900 and is unique in that it is partly in each of the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. It is an important business and marketing centre for a large surrounding district extending many miles to the north and south and all lines of business are represented including adequate professional services. There are five elevators here with a total capacity of 140,000 bushels and one flour mill. There are also good educational institutions. The Canadian Pacific Railway has started construction on a branch line from Lloydminster to Edmonton which will make Lloydminster an important railway point.
North Saskatchewan river cuts through the southwesterly part of the township flowing southeasterly through sections 7, 8, 5, 4, and 3. It is about 1,200 feet wide and has a current of approximately three miles an hour. Its valley is 200 feet deep and about one mile wide. The elevation of the river where it crosses the south boundary
of the township is approximately 1,640 feet above sea-level, while the average elevation of the land back from the river valley is slightly under 2,000 feet. The surface of the township back from the valley is mostly gently rolling to rolling. Most of the township is on the north side of the river and has a gradual slope towards the south. A ferry to cross the North Saskatchewan river operates in section 25 of the township to the south.
The Makaoo Indian reserve, No. 120, occupies a large part of this township including sections 11, 12, 13, 14, 23, 24, 25, 26, 35, 36, approximately the east halves of sections 10, 15, 22, 27, 34, the north halves of sections 1 and 2, and the northeast quarter of section 3. The portion of the reserve in this township includes only a few patches of cultivated land. It is prairie with scattered bluffs of poplar from 2 to 5 inches in diameter and is used for grazing purposes.
On the portion of the township not in the reserve, ap- proximately one-twentieth of the land is under cultivation. The remainder is prairie with scattered bluffs of poplar from 2 to 5 inches in diameter.
DRAINAGE AND WATER
There are no important drainage courses in the township other than the river. The surplus water drains into the low lands forming numerous small and large sloughs. These are important sources of water for stock. Water for domestic purposes is obtained from wells most of which are from 40 to 80 feet in depth.
The main soil type over this township is black fine sandy loam or black loam with many areas of clay (gumbo), clay loam, and numerous very stony ridges.
A few settlers took up land in this township in 1905. The greater number, however, settled in 1909 or later. At present about one-half of the land is occupied. All the settlers are English-speaking and most of them are of Canadian origin.
CROPS AND STOCK
Wheat and oats are grown for grain and oat greenfeed for fodder.. Cattle and horses are raised, the former being probably the most profitable. A considerable amount of hay is cut from the upland prairie clay lands and from those slough areas which dry up and produce hay. The greenfeed and hay is supplemented by straw and these together constitute the winter feed for stock.
Poplar wood is used for fuel. A limited amount is secured from the scattered bluffs and a further supply is to be had in the valley of the North Saskatchewan river.
SCHOOLS AND POST OFFICES
Onion Lake is the post office for this township. Schools are located near the southwest corner of section 29, and at Onion Lake.
(Sgd.) R. H. KNIGHT,
Dominion Land Surveyor.